Montessori pedagogy is a method of education that aims for the development of the child based on an experimental approach and observations. It was developed by Maria Montessori, an Italian physician and pedagogue, in the late 19th century and early 20th century. She has studied for 50 years children in underprivileged backgrounds and in various cultural backgrounds. The bases of this method are at the same time educational, scientific and philosophical. Do you want to know more about this pedagogy? Let’s find out together through this article.
The main principles of Montessori pedagogy
The needs of the child should be preferred in its development. This method promotes both his experiences and his errors so that he can establish his own logical reasoning by himself.
The Montessori pedagogy promotes the proposal of activities adapted to children. THE Montessori materials to be made available to them are those favorable to their awakening and which correspond to their needs.
The materials used are above all those which make it possible to isolate concepts such as shapes, sizes and colors and which the children can use independently. These activities should also promote their 5 senses. According to the Montessori method, education should help the child to its natural development.
This development considers motor development, the development of intellectual and sensory activity. The materials used should thus be the size of the child for easy handling. They should also have colors, make sounds, have different shapes or different weights to stimulate his senses. Moreover, the environment chosen for these activities is one that should allow the child to be autonomous and independent.
This pedagogy also adapts to the sensitive periods of the child. At each stage of his psychological development, his needs change and the adult should constantly adapt to them before the child builds a responsible personality on his own.
The child’s sensitive periods correspond to the age interval during which he chooses his activities according to his motivations and he is more receptive to the learning he draws from them. These sensitive or absorbing-mind periods are located from birth to 6 years old of the child.
During this age interval, the baby goes through 6 sensitive periods, including that corresponding to language between 2 months and 6 years, the sensitive period of the coordination of movements between 18 months and 4 years, that corresponding to the order between birth at 6 years, that which corresponds to the refinement of the senses between 18 months and 5 years, the sensitive period of social behavior between 2.5 years and 6 years and that corresponding to small objects during the second year.
A pedagogy recognized worldwide and applied in schools
There Montessori pedagogy is recognized throughout the world thanks to the potential of the child who develops positively thanks to its application. It is the most widespread form of pedagogy worldwide.
The Montessori method is oriented towards parents and educators at the level of its philosophical dimension, and is aimed at children at the level of its pedagogical dimension. It is by respecting this complementarity that one would expect everyone to flourish.
On the psychic level as well as on the psychological level, this method respects the laws of the natural development of the child. The creation of a whole collection of tools to ensure this development is not enough. It is above all necessary to guide him in the use of the tool which allows him to evolve.
In the whole world, the vast majority of Montessori schools are kindergartens. Individual activities are more favored over collective activities in this learning. We let each child go to the material of his choice to carry out the learning. It acts independently, autonomously and freely.
The teacher serves only as a guide to teach him how the equipment of his choice works. Once this point has been acquired, the guide withdraws. Indeed, the little one must be autonomous in the exploration of the material. This pedagogy thus develops the pleasure of learning.
For Maria Montessori, the important thing for the child is to cultivate the desire to learn at home. Indeed, according to her, the action of the individual is guided by his own motivation, his natural curiosity and his love for knowledge. Nothing should therefore be imposed on him during the apprenticeship.
The child discovers quite early and manipulates letters, large numbers, the pleasure of reading or operations. This principle allows Montessori schools to respect the fundamentals required by National Education and even to go beyond these bases.
To apply the Montessori pedagogy, there are several varieties of games that can entertain your child even at home. Among the most used fun activities, you can choose between snake beads, rough letters, number bank or slates.
These games allow children to learn written language, something to which they are very receptive between their third and fourth year. These activities are characterized by their ability to allow little ones to correct their mistakes themselves and to promote their autonomy.
For babies, several varieties of Montessori games now exist on the market depending on their age to teach them to develop their 5 senses: rattle, awakening mat, sound games, sensory cushions, interlocking games, gripping ball, teething ring and many others.
In any case, you should know that the little ones prefer to be close to their parents facilitating the observation of their evolution. In the exploration of his domestic environment, you can easily follow his evolution while leaving him free in his motricity. The various types of toys help him in this development.
As for the older ones, 6 years and up, you can choose from construction games, memory games and various other types of Montessori games to promote independent learning while having fun.
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